California real estate development involves numerous potential risks, ranging from lost money on an investment to legal liability for injuries caused by hazards or defects. Determining who is liable for an injury often requires an extensive examination of ownership and any improvements made to the property. The owner of a piece of real estate might be liable for an injury caused by a hazard on their property under the theory of premises liability. Injuries—both personal injuries and financial losses—could also be a result of negligence by someone hired to work on the property. In 2014, the California Supreme Court ruled on a dispute between a homeowners association (HOA) for a San Francisco condominium project and two architectural firms involved in designing the project. The plaintiff alleged, on behalf of all of the homeowners, that negligent architectural designs led to defects that “made the condominium units uninhabitable and unsafe during certain periods due to high temperatures.” Beacon Residential Community Assn. v. Skidmore, Owings & Merrill LLP, 59 Cal.4th 568, 572 (2014). The court ruled in the plaintiff HOA’s favor.
One of the fastest growing forms of residential property is the “common-interest development,” in which separately owned residential units share common areas such as elevator lobbies, fitness centers, and pools. Developers create HOAs as private nonprofit organizations to handle the management and maintenance of common areas. An HOA has a legal duty, under premises liability law, to maintain common areas that are reasonably free of defects or hazards, and to warn residents, their guests, and others of known hazards on the premises. The Beacon case, in contrast, was about duties owed to an HOA with regard to defects on the property.
The plaintiff in Beacon was the HOA created for a 595-unit residential condominium project in San Francisco. The developer hired the defendants to “provide architectural and engineering services.” Beacon, 59 Cal.4th at 571. The defendants were aware “that the finished construction would be sold as condominiums.” Id. The plaintiff’s lawsuit alleged negligent design, which caused “several defects, including extensive water infiltration, inadequate fire separations, structural cracks, and other safety hazards.” Id. at 572. The allegation of uninhabitability during summer months arose from “solar heat gain” caused by a lack of ventilation and substandard windows. Id.