Bankruptcy offers a way to obtain relief when one’s available income is not sufficient to cover one’s required debt payments. Federal bankruptcy law offers several options for businesses, including a restructuring of debts through Chapter 11 of the Bankruptcy Code. The goal of a Chapter 11 bankruptcy is to create a plan that pays down much of a business’ debt, discharges some remaining debts, and allows continued business operations once the bankruptcy case closes. Creating a Chapter 11 reorganization plan can be a complex task, depending on the size of the business and the extent of its debts. The Ninth Circuit recently considered a question about whether a default interest rate should still apply after a Chapter 11 debtor cures the default. The court reversed its own precedent, ruling that curing the default does not wipe out the default interest rate. In re New Investments, Inc., No. 13-36194, slip op. (9th Cir., Nov. 4, 2016).
Many secured loan or credit agreements require a debtor to pay a higher interest rate after a default. Almost 30 years ago, the Ninth Circuit held that a debtor who cures the default could eliminate their obligation to pay the default interest in a Chapter 11 bankruptcy. In re Entz-White Lumber & Supply, Inc., 850 F.2d 1338 (9th Cir. 1988). The court based its decision in part on language in the Bankruptcy Code stating that a Chapter 11 bankruptcy plan “shall…provide adequate means for the plan’s implementation, such as…curing or waiving of any default.” 11 U.S.C. § 1123(a)(5)(G).
The Bankruptcy Code does not define “cure,” so the court applied the common meaning of “taking care of the triggering event and returning to pre-default conditions.” Entz-White, 850 F.2d at 1340 (internal quotations omitted). It held that the interest owed by the debtor should be “at the market rate or at the pre-default rate provided for in the contract,” rather than the higher default interest rate. Id. at 1343.